Glossary


(From Glossary of Osteopathic Terminology prepared by the Glossary Review Committee sponsored by the Educational Council on Osteopathic Principles (ECOP) of the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM).

{ allopathy: } A therapeutic system in which a disease is treated by producing a second condition that is incompatible with or antagonistic to the first.

{ allopath: } A term used to refer those holding a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree, a non-osteopathic medical degree.

{ osteopathy, osteopathic medicine: } A complete system of medical care with a philosophy that combines the needs of the patient with current practice of medicine, surgery and obstetrics. Emphasizes the interrelationship between structure and function, and has an appreciation of the body's ability to heal itself.

{ osteopathic philosophy: } a concept of health care supported by expanding scientific knowledge that embraces the concept of the unity of the living organism's structure (anatomy) and function (physiology). Osteopathic philosophy emphasizes the following principles: 1. The human being is a dynamic unit of function. 2. The body possesses self-regulatory mechanisms that are self-healing in nature. 3. Structure and function are interrelated at all levels. 4. Rational treatment is based on these principles.

{ osteopathic musculoskeletal evaluation: } The osteopathic musculoskeletal evaluation provides information regarding the health of the patient. Utilizing the concepts of body unity, self-regulation and structure-function interrelationships, the osteopathic physician uses data from the musculoskeletal evaluation to assess the patient's status and develop a treatment plan.

{ models of osteopathic care: } Five models that articulate how an osteopathic practitioner seeks to influence a patient's physiological processes.

{ structural model: } the goal of the structural model is biomechanical adjustment and the mobilization of joints. This model also seeks to address problems in the myofascial connective tissues, as well as in the bony and soft tissues to remove restrictive forces and enhance motion. This is accomplished by the use of a wide range of osteopathic manipulative techniques such as high velocity-low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, ligamentous articular techniques and functional techniques.

{ respiratory-circulatory model: } the goal of the respiratory-circulatory model is to improve all of the diaphragm restrictions in the body. Diaphragms are considered to be "transverse restrictors" of motion, venous and lymphatic drainage and cerebrospinal fluid. The techniques used in this model osteopathy in the cranial field, ligamentous articular strain, myofascial release and lymphatic pump techniques.

{ metabolic model: } the goal of the metabolic model is to enhance the selfregulatory and self-healing mechanisms, to foster energy conservation by balancing the body's energy expenditure and exchange, and to enhance immune system function, endocrine function and organ function. The osteopathic considerations in this area are not manipulative in nature except for the use of lymphatic pump techniques. Nutritional counseling, diet and exercise advice are the most common approaches to balancing the body through this model.

{ neurologic model: } the goal of the neurologic model is to attain autonomic balance and address neural reflex activity, remove facilitated segments, decrease afferent nerve signals and relieve pain. The osteopathic manipulative techniques used to influence this area of patient health include counterstrain and Chapman reflex points.

{ behavioral model: } the goal of this model is to improve the biological, psychological and social components of the health spectrum. This includes emotional balancing and compensatory mechanisms. Reproductive processes and behavioral adaption are also included under this model.